Setting Min and Max Server Memory Setting

Configuring the min and max server memory settings for SQL Server has a number of things to consider prior to making changes. Before we jump into those considerations, let’s learn what the min and max server memory options do.

 

MIN SERVER MEMORY

The min server memory option specifies the minimum amount of memory utilized by the SQL Server buffer pool. It may seem that this should mean that when SQL Server starts it will automatically grab the memory equal to the min server memory value. However, this is not what happens. Instead, SQL Server acquires system memory as needed to process a workload. Consequently, if the SQL Server workload remains low, it is possible that the min server memory value is never reached. However, once it is reached SQL Server will not release an amount of memory that would take it below that minimum setting.

For example, let’s suppose your server has 128 GB of RAM and the min server memory option were set to 32 GB for SQL Server. SQL Server does not immediately allocate 32 GB of RAM upon serve startup. It will acquire memory as needed for the workload. This means that if there is little activity in the database it may take some time before SQL Server allocates 32 GB of RAM. Once this happens, SQL Server will not release memory that would reduce the allocation below the min serve memory setting.

 

MAX SERVER MEMORY

To a certain point the max server memory setting does do what it sounds like. Keep in mind this setting is applicable only to the buffer pool. SQL Server can allocate some memory beyond this max number as it consumes memory for things outside of the buffer pool. Also, realize that this setting does not account for memory allocated to other components of SQL Server that may be installed and running, such as Reporting Services or Analysis Services.

 

The default value for Max Server Memory is 2,147,483,647 in MB. That number is rather large, 2,047.99 GB to be exact. So what happens if the machine SQL Server is installed on does not have that much memory and the default was not changed? As previously mentioned, SQL Server will continue to acquire additional memory based on workload. As a result, SQL Server could make requests of Windows that puts the box under memory pressure as it essentially attempts to choke the OS by leaving less and less memory for the OS. There are mechanisms in the OS that allow it to page out to disk some information in the SQL Server buffer pool so Windows can recover that memory for itself. This hurts SQL Server performance because disk IO is far slower than keeping operations in memory. Among other places, details on how this process works can be found here, which is a blog post discussing the Lock Pages In Memory feature. I will save that setting for discussion a later post.

 

The point I want to make here is that you can calculate how much memory the Windows OS and other applications may need and then subtract that from the physical memory available. There are recommendations on the internet for such things. Whatever number you arrive at would then be set as the Max Server Memory setting in SQL Server. The Available MB perfmon counter should then be judiciously monitored to ensure that there is adequate free memory left on the box, at least 1-2 GB. That will allow plenty of memory for that person who just insists on using an RDP connection to do his or her work or for a new process to fire off without bringing the server to its knees.

 

For example, let’s say that your server has 128 GB of RAM. You may decide to allocate 12 GB for the OS. Perhaps you have a vendor app that needs 4 GB. You take 128-(12+4) and that leaves 112 GB of RAM. If you are running SQL Server 2008 R2 then the Max Server Memory setting can be set to a max value of 64 GB. That is per SQL instance. SQL Server 2012 Standard supports a maximum of 64 GB and SQL Server 2014 Standard supports 128 GB. If SQL Server 2014 Standard were installed in this scenario there would be a maximum of 112 GB that could potentially be allocated to the SQL Server buffer pool for the machine described above.   Setting this limit at 112 GB, followed by the aforementioned monitoring of the Available MB performance monitor counter, would help ensure that SQL Server does not hog memory from the Windows operating system.

 

Now that there is a foundational understanding of what the Min Server Memory and Max Server memory settings are and how they work, let’s look at how to set these options in SQL Server.

 

First, there is the GUI. Open SQL Server Management Studio and connect to a SQL Server instance. Right click on the SQL Server instance name and then choose Properties. Now select the Memory page in the left pane  Manually change the values in the Minimum and Max Server Memory boxes.  Remember that this is in MB.  Then click OK in the lower right of the dialog box.  Also, remember that when you make changes in SSMS you can click the Script button at the top of the dialog and T-SQL for the particular changes will be generated for you.

 

Min and Max Server Settings

 

Second, these settings can be changed using T-SQL.  Here is an example script that sets the minimum to 12 GB and the Max to 32 GB.

 

EXEC sys.sp_configure N’show advanced options’, N’1′ RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE

GO

EXEC sys.sp_configure N’min server memory (MB)’, N’12288′

GO

EXEC sys.sp_configure N’max server memory (MB)’, N’32768′

GO

RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE

GO

EXEC sys.sp_configure N’show advanced options’, N’0′ RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE

GO

 

I encourage you to review these settings on your SQL Server instance and consider whether they need to be adjusted.

Use Windows Groups to Manage SQL Server

Ever come across a SQL Server that had 5, 10, or more individual logins for users in it? I have a few times and it made me wonder if whoever had done such a thing realized how much harder they were making the administration of the server by doing this. I suppose some folks start out with one or two people that they give special permissions or access directly to the SQL instance and underlying databases. Their logic probably goes something like, “It’s just Tommy and Suzie. Those are the only people who will need access for a long time.”

Initially I have to agree with this thought. It does seem simpler when you only have a couple of people to simply create a login and corresponding user for those people. However, SQL Server access and permissions rarely stay that simple. Hopefully you are in a growing company. A growing company will eventually employ additional people who either truly need or believe that they need access to the database. If you are already in the habit of granting direct access using individual logins and database users, it will be tempting to continue this pattern. Before you know it, one day you connect to SQL Server and there is an ever increasing list of individual logins that suddenly catches your attention, and most likely there are a variety of permissions applied to those logins and users. This becomes a management nightmare.

In steps Windows groups. In a typical environment there will be Developers, one or more DBA’s and perhaps folks who write SSRS reports or who do ad hoc type reporting. These groups most likely all need different permission sets. Create a Windows group in AD, or have your System Admin do it. (You are on good terms with her, right?) Ask the SysAdmin to add the developers to a MyDomain\Dev group. Ask her for MyDomain\SQLAdmins and perhaps MyDomain\Reporting.

Now in SQL Server add these Logins and map them to appropriate database Users. For the Dev group maybe you give them only Public permissions in production at the SQL instance and db_datareader to various databases. Now, do the same for MyDomain\Reporting. Why have two groups with the same permissions you ask? Well, it’s a management thing. See if you throw them all into the same group when people on the Dev team need slightly different permissions for something now that permission change would be applied to your reporting people too, and you may not want that.

Back in SQL Server 2008 the BUILTIN Administrators group was removed from SQL Server as a group that was granted automatic access to the SQL Server instance. This was done to enhance security. Given this change, you might want to create a group specifically for your DBA’s and grant them the sysadmin server role. This is where MyDomain\SQLAdmins come in. You can grant them the needed access to manage the SQL instance without making those folks admins on the machine. The Windows SysAdmins can retain control of the machine without automatically being granted control in the SQL instance to do things that the DBA’s would frown upon. Everyone is happy, right?

Now let’s suppose that the company has a new project and three Developers are being hired. In the past the DBA might make three separate logins and map those logins to database users. Now that MyDomain\Dev exists just ask your System Administrator to add those new developers to that group while they are in Active Directory creating Windows accounts for the new employees and presto, permissions are set before the new employees show up on the first day. Prod permissions are set and you have of course already added the MyDomain\Dev group to the development SQL instance in the sysadmin server role so permissions are set there as well. All of that without ever touching SQL Server to grant individual permissions to people. You’ve just saved yourself some time so you can go do something else.

I hope this has been insightful and encourages you to start thinking ahead now, even while your SQL Server environment is still relatively small. I think starting with Windows groups from the beginning will save you time and headache later.

3 Additional Tips for Using SQL Server Management Studio

In an earlier post I listed three tips for using the SQL Server Management Studio user interface. I want to offer three additional tips for SSMS.  I think you will find that these ideas will bring additional efficiency and functionality to your use of the interface.

The first tip is related to getting more viewing space after running a query. Query results obviously take up the bottom portion of the SSMS editor window. I have often found myself then clicking in the query editor window and scrolling to view various parts of my query, all the while the results portion of the screen is using a good portion of the window. Some time back an associate told me how to easily address that annoying issue. Simply click CTRL and R to collapse the query results so that the full page is again used for viewing the query text.

The second tip is related to finding objects in Object Explorer. Ever found yourself trying to locate a particular stored procedure that has a name that is a mile long and your brain only remembers part of the procedure name? What about trying to find all the tables related to Orders or Shipping? As it turns out, there is a nice way to search for such things.

Drill down into the object level you are searching through, such as Databases > AdventureWorks2008R2 > Tables. Right click the Tables folder and select Filter. Then select Filter Settings. You are then presented with the dialog below. Enter the name description in the Value column and click OK. This filtering also works for the Views, Stored Procedures and Functions folders.

Filter Search on a Table

 

The third tip relates to using color to visually identify what SQL Server instance the query window is connected to. I once saw a Developer who had five SQL Server Management Studio windows open at once. When another Developer asked him why he answered that it was so he could maintain separate connections to different SQL instances and not be as confused as if he had all the connections in one running instance of SQL Server. It was, I suppose, an admirable attempt to ensure he was running the query against the right SQL instance, but it caused me to remember that color can be used for identifying the SQL instance.

Here is how it works. When SSMS is launched the user is presented with a connection dialog.

SSMS Connect to Server Dialog2

 

Next select Options and the below appears.

 

SSMS Connection Properties Dialog

Click on the Select button, choose a color and then click OK and then Connect in order to connect to the SQL instance. Now open a new query window. The color you just selected will appear along the bottom of the SSMS editor window. To do this after you have already opened SSMS, click Connect > Database Engine > Options from the Object Explorer pane. This type of color customization can also be done with registered servers. For more information on this feature click this link: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh213617(v=sql.120).aspx

 

I hope these additional tips on SSMS prove useful. Feel free to leave me a comment or another customization that you like to use.